1.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ，64)When fat and salt ________ (remove) from food，the food tastes as if it is missing something.
1. are removed
2.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ，67)Fast food ________ (be) full of fat and salt；by eating more fast food people will get more salt and fat than they need in their diet.
3.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ，65)Steam engines ________ (use) to pull the carriages and it must have been fairly unpleasant for the passengers，with all the smoke and noise.
3. were used
4.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ，68)Later，engineers ________ (manage) to construct railways in a system of deep tunnels (隧道)，which became known as the Tube.
5.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ，43)Sarah ________ (tell) that she could be Britain’s new supermodel earning a million dollars in the new year.
5. has been told/was told
6.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ，49)Sarah says，“My dad thinks I should take the offer now.But at the moment，school ________(come) first....”
7.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ，62)So it was a great honour to be invited backstage at the not－for－profit Panda Base, where ticket money helps pay for research, I________(allow)to get up close to these cute animals at the 600－acre centre.
7. was allowed
8.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ，63)Leaving the less important things until tomorrow ________ (be) often acceptable.
9.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ，70)It could be anything—gardening, cooking, music, sports—but whatever it is，________ (make) sure it’s a relief from daily stress rather than another thing to worry about.
10.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ，42)Truly elegant chopsticks might________(make)of gold and silver with Chinese characters.
10 be made
11.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ，49)Confucius believed knives would remind people of killings and ________(be)too violent for use at the table.
11 were [因be与would remind并列，根据并列一致原则，be也用过去式；又因主语knives是复数，故填were。]
12.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ，61)It was raining lightly when I ________(arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn.But I didn’t care.
答案 arrived [由主句谓语动词“was raining”和后句的谓语动词“didn’t care”可知，arrive应用一般过去时。句意是“当我们在天亮前到达阳朔时，正在下着小雨”。]
13.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ，67)Yangshuo ________(be) really beautiful.A study of travelers conducted by the website Trip Advisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world.
答案 is [指目前的状态或客观存在的状态，用一般现在时，下句谓语动词names是一般现在时，也有提示作用；主语Yangshuo是第三人称单数，故填is。]
14.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ，68)At the same time they warm up again for the night.This cycle ________ (go) day after day.The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night and thus always a timely offset(抵消) for the outside temperatures.
答案 goes [因上句谓语动词“warm up”与下句中的谓语动词“warm up”和“cool off”都是一般现在时，故此处的go也用一般现在时才能保持时态一致；主语This cycle是第三人称单数，故填goes。]
15.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ，61)In 1969，the pollution was terrible along the Cuyahoga River near Cleveland，Ohio.It ________ (be) unimaginable that it could ever be cleaned up.
答案 was [指1969年的情况，用一般过去时，上下句谓语动词的时态(was，could)也提示我们用一般过去时，指当时无法想象；又因主语It是第三人称单数，故填was。]
16.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ，65)A boy on a bike ________ (catch) my attention.He was riding beside the bus and waving his arms.
答案 caught [在句中作谓语，考虑时态和语态；a boy与catch是主动关系，又由语境(如was riding)可知，用一般过去时，故填caught。]
1.(2017·重庆巴蜀中学一诊)For more than 50 years，travelers ________(use)the international driver’s license to travel in foreign countries.
答案 have used/have been using [句意：50多年来，游客们一直在使用国际驾照到外国游玩。根据时间状语for more than 50 years可知， 此处应该用现在完成时或者现在完成进行时。]
2.(2017·黑龙江大庆实中期中)For some reason I ________(stay) with relatives currently，and in their living room sits a piano which is my favourite musical instrument.
答案 am staying [根据时间状语currently可知，空格处最好用现在进行时。]
3.(2017·湖南郴州第一次质检)The first practical cooling system for use in industry ________(invent)by Willis Carrier in New York，the USA.
答案 was invented [设空处是句子的谓语动词，动作与主语之间是被动关系，此处描述过去的事实，故用一般过去时的被动语态。]
4.(2017·山西太原期末)The reason for this is that Britain’s supermarkets________(experience) huge changes in the past decades.
答案 have experienced [根据题干中的时间状语in the past decades可知，此处应该用现在完成时。]
5.(2017·辽宁东北育才中学第五次模拟)In today’s world we are constantly surrounded by technology.It’s true to say that technology ________(make) our lives easier.
答案 makes [句意：在当今世界上我们始终被科技包围着。说科技让我们的生活变得更容易这是真的。设空处是从句的谓语动词，根据语境和are constantly surrounded可知，此处应该是现在时，由于描述的是客观事实，用一般现在时，主语为不可数名词，故填makes。]
6.(2017·青岛市期末)Betty’s heart was free of the bitterness and hatred(憎恨)she ________(carry) for most of her life.Forgiveness for her father was a gift she gave to herself.
答案 had carried [设空处是定语从句的谓语动词，该动作应该发生在主句谓语动词之前，是过去的过去，故用过去完成时。]
7.(2017·山东泰安市期末)It ________(take)me quite a while to find a parking place for my car，and in the end I had to leave it in a narrow street，some way away from the dentist’s.
答案 took [句意：我用了很长时间才找到了一个停车的地方，最后我不得不停在一个窄窄的离牙科诊所还有一段距离的巷道里。设空处和had to leave同时发生，用一般过去时。]
8.(2017·辽宁六校期末联考)When we got home，she was fine except that all her books________(throw)out of the window.
答案 had been thrown [句意：当我们到家时，她一切都好，就是把她所有的书都扔到了窗外。设空处是that从句的谓语动词，与从句主语all her books是被动关系，且该动作发生在got之前，是过去的过去。所以此处要用过去完成时的被动语态。]
9.(2017·四川南充适应考试二)He was an advocate of modern science and political teaching，rather than the strict classical education afforded by the school，so he________(dismiss)from his post.
答案 was dismissed [并列连词so连接两个并列分句，设空处是第二个分句的谓语动词，与主语之间是被动关系，故用一般过去时的被动语态。]
10.(2017·湖南邵阳第二次联考)Here ________(be) a good piece of advice to those parents：if you want to expect your child to be able to accomplish something，you must first of all develop his ability to adapt to new surroundings.
答案 is [根据语境要用一般现在时，且主语是a good piece of advice，要用单数形式的is。]
11.(2016·江西师大附中期末)Afternoon tea，which________(design) as a light snack to bridge the gap between lunch and dinner，dates back to the 1840s.It went on to become a fashionable social occasion for the upper class.
答案 was designed [设空处是定语从句的谓语动词，与充当主语的关系代词which之间是被动关系，根据the 1840s可知，此处是一般过去时的被动语态。]
12.(2016·吉林长春外国语学校)It was the fourth time she________(shop) online for hours.I had already reminded her to think twice before buying anything，but my wife ingnored what I had said.
答案 had shopped [“It was＋第几次＋过去完成时”是固定句式。]
13.(2016·陕西渭南一模)It is required by law that a driving test________(take)before a man gets a license.
答案 (should)be taken [句意：法律规定，一个人在获得驾照之前要先参加驾照考试。It is required that...中，that从句的谓语动词用“should＋动词原形”，其中should可以省略；又因为test与take之间是被动关系，故用被动语态，即(should)be taken。]
14.(2016·天津七校4月联考)I was ill that day，otherwise I ________(take) part in the sports meet.
答案 would have taken [句意：那天我病了，否则我就参加运动会了。根据语境可推知，设空处为与过去事实相反的虚拟语气，故答案为would have taken。]
15.(2016·黑龙江哈六中期末)Festivals and celebrations of all kinds________(hold)everywhere since ancient times.Most ancient festivals would celebrate the end of cold weather.
答案 have been held [根据since引导的时间状语可知，此处应该是现在完成时，且主语与设空处的谓语动词之间是被动关系，所以此处要用现在完成时的被动语态，主语为复数，故填have been held。]
1.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ，63)Fat and salt are very important parts of a diet.They are required ________(process) the food that we eat, to recover from injury and for several other bodily functions.
答案 to process [be required to do sth“被要求做某事”，为固定用法。process the food“加工食物”。]
2.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ，68)Fast food is full of fat and salt；by ________ (eat) more fast food people will get more salt and fat than they need in their diet.
答案 eating [by为介词，故应填v.－ing形式， by doing sth“通过做某事”。]
3.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ，63)It took three years to complete and was built using an interesting method.This included digging up the road，________(lay) the track and then building a strong roof over the top.
答案 laying [and前后为三个并列成分，根据“digging”“building”可知用laying，这三个动名词短语作宾语。]
4.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ，41)But unlike school friends，16－year－old Sarah is not spending half－term ________ (rest).
答案 resting [固定短语 spend some time doing sth。]
5.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ，45)Her father Peter，44，wants her to give up school to model full－time.But Sarah，who has taken part in shows along with top models，wants ________ (prove) that she has brains as well as beauty.
答案 to prove [want to do sth想要做某事。]
6.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ，66)I was the first Western TV reporter________(permit) to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild.
答案 permitted [句中已有谓语was，故permit应作为非谓语动词；又因reporter与permit之间是被动关系，故用过去分词作后置定语。]
7.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ，67)My ambassadorial duties will include________(introduce) British visitors to the 120－plus pandas at Chengdu and others at a research center in the misty mountains of Bifengxia.
答案 introducing [由include后习惯上要动名词作宾语，即include doing，可知填introducing。]
8.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ，69)If you find something you love doing outside of the office, you’ll be less likely ________ (bring) your work home.
答案 to bring [因be likely to do sth是固定搭配。]
9.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ，43)Skilled workers also combine various hard woods and metal ________(create)special designs.
答案 to create [句中已有谓语combine，故create应为非谓语动词；表示目的，用动词不定式to create。]
10.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ，44)People probably cooked their food in large pots, ________(use)twigs(树枝)to remove it.
答案 using [句中已有谓语cooked，故use为非谓语动词；又因主语people与use在逻辑上是主动关系，故用v.－ing形式作伴随状语。]
11.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ，68)Yangshuo is really beautiful.A study of travelers ________(conduct) by the website TripAdvisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world.
答案 conducted [因句中已有谓语动词names(提名)，所以conduct应为非谓语动词；又由conduct a study/survey(进行研究/调查)可知，a study与conduct是被动关系，故用过去分词短语作后置定语。]
12.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ，70)Abercrombie & Kent，a travel company in Hong Kong，says it regularly arranges quick getaways here for people ________(live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong.
答案 living [因在says后的宾语从句中已有谓语arranges，所以live应为非谓语动词；又因people与live是主动关系，故用现在分词短语作后置定语。]
13.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ，61)The adobe dwellings(土坯房) ________(build) by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by...
答案 built [因句中已有谓语动词are admired，所以build应为非谓语动词；又因The adobe dwellings与build是被动关系，加之有by的提示，可知用过去分词短语作后置定语，故填built。]
14.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ，64)In addition to their simple beauty，what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their ability to “air condition” a house without ________(use) electric equipment.
答案 using [作介词without的宾语，要用动名词，故填using。]
15.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ，66)When a new day breaks，the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough ________(cool) the house during the hot day.
答案 to cool [在作表语或补语的形容词后，只能用不定式作状语，故填to cool。另外，“形容词/副词＋enough to do sth(够……可以做某事)”可看作固定搭配。]
16.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ，65)But the river wasn’t changed in a few days or even a few months.It took years of work ________ (reduce) the industrial pollution and clean the water.
答案 to reduce [因it takes some time to do sth是固定句型，用不定式作真正的主语。]
17.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ，68)While there are ________ (amaze) stories of instant transformation，for most of us the changes are gradual and require a lot of effort and work，like cleaning up a polluted river.
答案 amazing [在名词stories前作定语，表示“惊人的”，要用现在分词作形容词用，故填amazing。]
18.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ，61)One morning，I was waiting at the bus stop，worried about ________ (be) late for school.
答案 being [在介词(about)后作宾语，动词be应用动名词形式。]
19.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ，63)There were many people waiting at the bus stop，and some of them looked very anxious and ________(disappoint).
答案 disappointed [因looked作“看起来”解是系动词，故用作形容词用的过去分词disappointed充当表语，表示“感到失望的”。]
20.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ，66)I heard a passenger behind me shouting to the driver，but he refused ________(stop) until we reached the next stop.
答案 to stop [表示“拒绝做某事”，是refuse to do sth。]
1.(2017·福建福安一中第四次月考)________(compare)with the traditional trade mode，they don’t have to spend money in renting a house.However，there are still some disadvantages to online shopping.
答案 Compared [句意：与传统的商业模式比较，他们不需要花很多钱租房子。但是，网购仍然也有一些劣势。compared with为独立成分，在句中作状语。]
2.(2017·安徽芜湖、马鞍山第一次质检)At parties，more people are on their smartphones than on their drinks.In addition，too many people are using smartphones while ________ (drive).
答案 driving [设空处动作与too many people之间是主动关系，应该用v.－ing形式，相当于while they are driving。]
3.(2017·安徽庐江六校联盟第四次联考)Therefore，many students like him in Australia had part－time jobs ________ (earn) a living and save enough money for travelling.
答案 to earn [句意：因此，在澳大利亚很多像他这样的学生都做兼职来谋生，也存下足够的钱去旅行。表示目的，要用不定式。]
4.(2017·四川新津中学12月月考)________(base)on recent researches，distance learning slowly proves as valuable as the traditional campus－based form.
答案 Based [根据固定搭配be based on可知，此处要用过去分词形式。]
5.(2017·江西重点中学联盟联考一)The event will also be broadcast live，________ (offer) visitors choice between three camera angles.
答案 offering [句意：这项活动也将会进行现场直播，给游客提供三个摄像机角度进行选择。分析句子可知，逗号后是非谓语动词作状语，设空处动作与event之间是主动关系，要用v.－ing形式。]
6.(2017·安徽皖南八校12月联考)Traditionally，water would be collected and poured only on family members as a symbolic way ________(ensure) good luck in the coming year.
答案 to ensure [此处考查不定式作状语表示目的。]
7.(2017·湖南益阳箴言中学第三次模拟)________ (tell)stories of people that you know or ancestors whose stories you know is a powerful way to help young people feel a connection to those who came before them.
答案 Telling [设空处是句子的主语，要用v.－ing形式。]
8.(2017·安徽江淮十校期末联考)Another student，a 15－year－old girl from Guangdong，was afraid of exams.She would get very upset with the exam paper ________ (lie) in front of her.
答案 lying [此处宾语与宾补之间是主动关系，应该用v.－ing形式。]
9.(2017·石家庄市期末)Failing ________ (turn) in your homework on time will directly affect your grade for a certain course.
答案 to turn [根据fail to do sth可知答案。]
10.(2017·黑龙江哈六中期末)Next keep in mind that forgiveness does not necessarily mean ________ (accept) the action of the person who upsets you.
答案 accepting [句意：再者，要记住原谅并不一定意味着去接受那个让你恼火的人的行为。非谓语动词作动词mean的宾语，意味着做某事，要用mean doing sth。]
11.(2017·全国卷冲刺三)It was mainly for this reason that the Brazilian government decided to have a new city ________ (build) 600 miles north－west of Rio de Janeiro.
答案 built [宾语a new city与build是被动关系，应该用v.－ed形式。]
12.(2016·浙江六校3月联考)Li Chen and Fan Bingbing have fallen in love with each other，________ (make) a hot topic in the entertainment industry.
答案 making [句意：李晨和范冰冰相爱了，这成了娱乐界的一个热门话题。此题考查非谓语动词作结果状语。]
13.(2016·陕西一联)Yan’an，a city ________ (locate) in northern Shanxi Province，has seen great progress in its tourism industry over the past few years.
答案 located [句意：延安，坐落在陕西省北部的一座城市，在过去的几年中见证了该地旅游业的巨大发展。被修饰词a city与locate之间为逻辑上的被动关系，故答案为located。]
14.(2016·湖南怀化一模)With the exam ________(take) place in ten minutes，they were asked to hand in their mobile phones.
答案 to take [句意：还有十分钟考试就要开始了，所以他们被要求交出他们的手机。with的宾语the exam与take place为逻辑上的主动关系且表示将来，故用不定式作宾补。]
15.(2016·黑龙江哈尔滨六中模考)This allowed people ________(have) a day or two out now and then，which gave them a taste for leisure and seaside.
答案 to have [句意：这允许人们不时有一两天时间可以出去，以品味闲暇和海边。allow sb to do sth允许某人做某事。]