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 1.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ,64)When fat and salt ________ (remove) from food,the food tastes as if it is missing something.

 1. are removed 

 2.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ,67)Fast food ________ (be) full of fat and salt;by eating more fast food people will get more salt and fat than they need in their diet.

 2. is 

 3.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ,65)Steam engines ________ (use) to pull the carriages and it must have been fairly unpleasant for the passengers,with all the smoke and noise.

 3. were used 

 4.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ,68)Later,engineers ________ (manage) to construct railways in a system of deep tunnels (隧道),which became known as the Tube.

 4. managed 

 5.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ,43)Sarah ________ (tell) that she could be Britain’s new supermodel earning a million dollars in the new year.

 5. has been told/was told 

 6.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ,49)Sarah says,“My dad thinks I should take the offer now.But at the moment,school ________(come) first....”

 6. comes 

 7.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ,62)So it was a great honour to be invited backstage at the not-for-profit Panda Base, where ticket money helps pay for research, I________(allow)to get up close to these cute animals at the 600-acre centre.

 7. was allowed 

 8.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ,63)Leaving the less important things until tomorrow ________ (be) often acceptable.

 8 is 

 9.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ,70)It could be anything—gardening, cooking, music, sports—but whatever it is,________ (make) sure it’s a relief from daily stress rather than another thing to worry about.

 9 make 

 10.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ,42)Truly elegant chopsticks might________(make)of gold and silver with Chinese characters.

 10 be made 

 11.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ,49)Confucius believed knives would remind people of killings and ________(be)too violent for use at the table.

 11 were [因be与would remind并列,根据并列一致原则,be也用过去式;又因主语knives是复数,故填were。]

 12.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ,61)It was raining lightly when I ________(arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn.But I didn’t care.

 答案 arrived [由主句谓语动词“was raining”和后句的谓语动词“didn’t care”可知,arrive应用一般过去时。句意是“当我们在天亮前到达阳朔时,正在下着小雨”。]

 13.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ,67)Yangshuo ________(be) really beautiful.A study of travelers conducted by the website Trip Advisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world.

 答案 is [指目前的状态或客观存在的状态,用一般现在时,下句谓语动词names是一般现在时,也有提示作用;主语Yangshuo是第三人称单数,故填is。]

 14.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ,68)At the same time they warm up again for the night.This cycle ________ (go) day after day.The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night and thus always a timely offset(抵消) for the outside temperatures.

 答案 goes [因上句谓语动词“warm up”与下句中的谓语动词“warm up”和“cool off”都是一般现在时,故此处的go也用一般现在时才能保持时态一致;主语This cycle是第三人称单数,故填goes。]

 15.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ,61)In 1969,the pollution was terrible along the Cuyahoga River near Cleveland,Ohio.It ________ (be) unimaginable that it could ever be cleaned up.

 答案 was [指1969年的情况,用一般过去时,上下句谓语动词的时态(was,could)也提示我们用一般过去时,指当时无法想象;又因主语It是第三人称单数,故填was。]

 16.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ,65)A boy on a bike ________ (catch) my attention.He was riding beside the bus and waving his arms.

 答案 caught [在句中作谓语,考虑时态和语态;a boy与catch是主动关系,又由语境(如was riding)可知,用一般过去时,故填caught。]


 1.(2017·重庆巴蜀中学一诊)For more than 50 years,travelers ________(use)the international driver’s license to travel in foreign countries.

 答案 have used/have been using [句意:50多年来,游客们一直在使用国际驾照到外国游玩。根据时间状语for more than 50 years可知, 此处应该用现在完成时或者现在完成进行时。]

 2.(2017·黑龙江大庆实中期中)For some reason I ________(stay) with relatives currently,and in their living room sits a piano which is my favourite musical instrument.

 答案 am staying [根据时间状语currently可知,空格处最好用现在进行时。]

 3.(2017·湖南郴州第一次质检)The first practical cooling system for use in industry ________(invent)by Willis Carrier in New York,the USA.

 答案 was invented [设空处是句子的谓语动词,动作与主语之间是被动关系,此处描述过去的事实,故用一般过去时的被动语态。]

 4.(2017·山西太原期末)The reason for this is that Britain’s supermarkets________(experience) huge changes in the past decades.

 答案 have experienced [根据题干中的时间状语in the past decades可知,此处应该用现在完成时。]

 5.(2017·辽宁东北育才中学第五次模拟)In today’s world we are constantly surrounded by technology.It’s true to say that technology ________(make) our lives easier.

 答案 makes [句意:在当今世界上我们始终被科技包围着。说科技让我们的生活变得更容易这是真的。设空处是从句的谓语动词,根据语境和are constantly surrounded可知,此处应该是现在时,由于描述的是客观事实,用一般现在时,主语为不可数名词,故填makes。]

 6.(2017·青岛市期末)Betty’s heart was free of the bitterness and hatred(憎恨)she ________(carry) for most of her life.Forgiveness for her father was a gift she gave to herself.

 答案 had carried [设空处是定语从句的谓语动词,该动作应该发生在主句谓语动词之前,是过去的过去,故用过去完成时。]

 7.(2017·山东泰安市期末)It ________(take)me quite a while to find a parking place for my car,and in the end I had to leave it in a narrow street,some way away from the dentist’s.

 答案 took [句意:我用了很长时间才找到了一个停车的地方,最后我不得不停在一个窄窄的离牙科诊所还有一段距离的巷道里。设空处和had to leave同时发生,用一般过去时。]

 8.(2017·辽宁六校期末联考)When we got home,she was fine except that all her books________(throw)out of the window.

 答案 had been thrown [句意:当我们到家时,她一切都好,就是把她所有的书都扔到了窗外。设空处是that从句的谓语动词,与从句主语all her books是被动关系,且该动作发生在got之前,是过去的过去。所以此处要用过去完成时的被动语态。]

 9.(2017·四川南充适应考试二)He was an advocate of modern science and political teaching,rather than the strict classical education afforded by the school,so he________(dismiss)from his post.

 答案 was dismissed [并列连词so连接两个并列分句,设空处是第二个分句的谓语动词,与主语之间是被动关系,故用一般过去时的被动语态。]

 10.(2017·湖南邵阳第二次联考)Here ________(be) a good piece of advice to those parents:if you want to expect your child to be able to accomplish something,you must first of all develop his ability to adapt to new surroundings.

 答案 is [根据语境要用一般现在时,且主语是a good piece of advice,要用单数形式的is。]

 11.(2016·江西师大附中期末)Afternoon tea,which________(design) as a light snack to bridge the gap between lunch and dinner,dates back to the 1840s.It went on to become a fashionable social occasion for the upper class.

 答案 was designed [设空处是定语从句的谓语动词,与充当主语的关系代词which之间是被动关系,根据the 1840s可知,此处是一般过去时的被动语态。]

 12.(2016·吉林长春外国语学校)It was the fourth time she________(shop) online for hours.I had already reminded her to think twice before buying anything,but my wife ingnored what I had said.

 答案 had shopped [“It was+第几次+过去完成时”是固定句式。]

 13.(2016·陕西渭南一模)It is required by law that a driving test________(take)before a man gets a license.

 答案 (should)be taken [句意:法律规定,一个人在获得驾照之前要先参加驾照考试。It is required that...中,that从句的谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,其中should可以省略;又因为test与take之间是被动关系,故用被动语态,即(should)be taken。]

 14.(2016·天津七校4月联考)I was ill that day,otherwise I ________(take) part in the sports meet.

 答案 would have taken [句意:那天我病了,否则我就参加运动会了。根据语境可推知,设空处为与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,故答案为would have taken。]

 15.(2016·黑龙江哈六中期末)Festivals and celebrations of all kinds________(hold)everywhere since ancient times.Most ancient festivals would celebrate the end of cold weather.

 答案 have been held [根据since引导的时间状语可知,此处应该是现在完成时,且主语与设空处的谓语动词之间是被动关系,所以此处要用现在完成时的被动语态,主语为复数,故填have been held。]


 1.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ,63)Fat and salt are very important parts of a diet.They are required ________(process) the food that we eat, to recover from injury and for several other bodily functions.

 答案 to process [be required to do sth“被要求做某事”,为固定用法。process the food“加工食物”。]

 2.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ,68)Fast food is full of fat and salt;by ________ (eat) more fast food people will get more salt and fat than they need in their diet.

 答案 eating [by为介词,故应填v.-ing形式, by doing sth“通过做某事”。]

 3.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ,63)It took three years to complete and was built using an interesting method.This included digging up the road,________(lay) the track and then building a strong roof over the top.

 答案 laying [and前后为三个并列成分,根据“digging”“building”可知用laying,这三个动名词短语作宾语。]

 4.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ,41)But unlike school friends,16-year-old Sarah is not spending half-term ________ (rest).

 答案 resting [固定短语 spend some time doing sth。]

 5.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ,45)Her father Peter,44,wants her to give up school to model full-time.But Sarah,who has taken part in shows along with top models,wants ________ (prove) that she has brains as well as beauty.

 答案 to prove [want to do sth想要做某事。]

 6.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ,66)I was the first Western TV reporter________(permit) to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild.

 答案 permitted [句中已有谓语was,故permit应作为非谓语动词;又因reporter与permit之间是被动关系,故用过去分词作后置定语。]

 7.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ,67)My ambassadorial duties will include________(introduce) British visitors to the 120-plus pandas at Chengdu and others at a research center in the misty mountains of Bifengxia.

 答案 introducing [由include后习惯上要动名词作宾语,即include doing,可知填introducing。]

 8.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ,69)If you find something you love doing outside of the office, you’ll be less likely ________ (bring) your work home.

 答案 to bring [因be likely to do sth是固定搭配。]

 9.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ,43)Skilled workers also combine various hard woods and metal ________(create)special designs.

 答案 to create [句中已有谓语combine,故create应为非谓语动词;表示目的,用动词不定式to create。]

 10.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ,44)People probably cooked their food in large pots, ________(use)twigs(树枝)to remove it.

 答案 using [句中已有谓语cooked,故use为非谓语动词;又因主语people与use在逻辑上是主动关系,故用v.-ing形式作伴随状语。]

 11.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ,68)Yangshuo is really beautiful.A study of travelers ________(conduct) by the website TripAdvisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world.

 答案 conducted [因句中已有谓语动词names(提名),所以conduct应为非谓语动词;又由conduct a study/survey(进行研究/调查)可知,a study与conduct是被动关系,故用过去分词短语作后置定语。]

 12.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ,70)Abercrombie & Kent,a travel company in Hong Kong,says it regularly arranges quick getaways here for people ________(live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong.

 答案 living [因在says后的宾语从句中已有谓语arranges,所以live应为非谓语动词;又因people与live是主动关系,故用现在分词短语作后置定语。]

 13.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ,61)The adobe dwellings(土坯房) ________(build) by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by...

 答案 built [因句中已有谓语动词are admired,所以build应为非谓语动词;又因The adobe dwellings与build是被动关系,加之有by的提示,可知用过去分词短语作后置定语,故填built。]

 14.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ,64)In addition to their simple beauty,what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their ability to “air condition” a house without ________(use) electric equipment.

 答案 using [作介词without的宾语,要用动名词,故填using。]

 15.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ,66)When a new day breaks,the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough ________(cool) the house during the hot day.

 答案 to cool [在作表语或补语的形容词后,只能用不定式作状语,故填to cool。另外,“形容词/副词+enough to do sth(够……可以做某事)”可看作固定搭配。]

 16.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ,65)But the river wasn’t changed in a few days or even a few months.It took years of work ________ (reduce) the industrial pollution and clean the water.

 答案 to reduce [因it takes some time to do sth是固定句型,用不定式作真正的主语。]

 17.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ,68)While there are ________ (amaze) stories of instant transformation,for most of us the changes are gradual and require a lot of effort and work,like cleaning up a polluted river.

 答案 amazing [在名词stories前作定语,表示“惊人的”,要用现在分词作形容词用,故填amazing。]

 18.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ,61)One morning,I was waiting at the bus stop,worried about ________ (be) late for school.

 答案 being [在介词(about)后作宾语,动词be应用动名词形式。]

 19.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ,63)There were many people waiting at the bus stop,and some of them looked very anxious and ________(disappoint).

 答案 disappointed [因looked作“看起来”解是系动词,故用作形容词用的过去分词disappointed充当表语,表示“感到失望的”。]

 20.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ,66)I heard a passenger behind me shouting to the driver,but he refused ________(stop) until we reached the next stop.

 答案 to stop [表示“拒绝做某事”,是refuse to do sth。]


 1.(2017·福建福安一中第四次月考)________(compare)with the traditional trade mode,they don’t have to spend money in renting a house.However,there are still some disadvantages to online shopping.

 答案 Compared [句意:与传统的商业模式比较,他们不需要花很多钱租房子。但是,网购仍然也有一些劣势。compared with为独立成分,在句中作状语。]

 2.(2017·安徽芜湖、马鞍山第一次质检)At parties,more people are on their smartphones than on their drinks.In addition,too many people are using smartphones while ________ (drive).

 答案 driving [设空处动作与too many people之间是主动关系,应该用v.-ing形式,相当于while they are driving。]

 3.(2017·安徽庐江六校联盟第四次联考)Therefore,many students like him in Australia had part-time jobs ________ (earn) a living and save enough money for travelling.

 答案 to earn [句意:因此,在澳大利亚很多像他这样的学生都做兼职来谋生,也存下足够的钱去旅行。表示目的,要用不定式。]

 4.(2017·四川新津中学12月月考)________(base)on recent researches,distance learning slowly proves as valuable as the traditional campus-based form.

 答案 Based [根据固定搭配be based on可知,此处要用过去分词形式。]

 5.(2017·江西重点中学联盟联考一)The event will also be broadcast live,________ (offer) visitors choice between three camera angles.

 答案 offering [句意:这项活动也将会进行现场直播,给游客提供三个摄像机角度进行选择。分析句子可知,逗号后是非谓语动词作状语,设空处动作与event之间是主动关系,要用v.-ing形式。]

 6.(2017·安徽皖南八校12月联考)Traditionally,water would be collected and poured only on family members as a symbolic way ________(ensure) good luck in the coming year.

 答案 to ensure [此处考查不定式作状语表示目的。]

 7.(2017·湖南益阳箴言中学第三次模拟)________ (tell)stories of people that you know or ancestors whose stories you know is a powerful way to help young people feel a connection to those who came before them.

 答案 Telling [设空处是句子的主语,要用v.-ing形式。]

 8.(2017·安徽江淮十校期末联考)Another student,a 15-year-old girl from Guangdong,was afraid of exams.She would get very upset with the exam paper ________ (lie) in front of her.

 答案 lying [此处宾语与宾补之间是主动关系,应该用v.-ing形式。]

 9.(2017·石家庄市期末)Failing ________ (turn) in your homework on time will directly affect your grade for a certain course.

 答案 to turn [根据fail to do sth可知答案。]

 10.(2017·黑龙江哈六中期末)Next keep in mind that forgiveness does not necessarily mean ________ (accept) the action of the person who upsets you.

 答案 accepting [句意:再者,要记住原谅并不一定意味着去接受那个让你恼火的人的行为。非谓语动词作动词mean的宾语,意味着做某事,要用mean doing sth。]

 11.(2017·全国卷冲刺三)It was mainly for this reason that the Brazilian government decided to have a new city ________ (build) 600 miles north-west of Rio de Janeiro.

 答案 built [宾语a new city与build是被动关系,应该用v.-ed形式。]

 12.(2016·浙江六校3月联考)Li Chen and Fan Bingbing have fallen in love with each other,________ (make) a hot topic in the entertainment industry.

 答案 making [句意:李晨和范冰冰相爱了,这成了娱乐界的一个热门话题。此题考查非谓语动词作结果状语。]

 13.(2016·陕西一联)Yan’an,a city ________ (locate) in northern Shanxi Province,has seen great progress in its tourism industry over the past few years.

 答案 located [句意:延安,坐落在陕西省北部的一座城市,在过去的几年中见证了该地旅游业的巨大发展。被修饰词a city与locate之间为逻辑上的被动关系,故答案为located。]

 14.(2016·湖南怀化一模)With the exam ________(take) place in ten minutes,they were asked to hand in their mobile phones.

 答案 to take [句意:还有十分钟考试就要开始了,所以他们被要求交出他们的手机。with的宾语the exam与take place为逻辑上的主动关系且表示将来,故用不定式作宾补。]

 15.(2016·黑龙江哈尔滨六中模考)This allowed people ________(have) a day or two out now and then,which gave them a taste for leisure and seaside.

 答案 to have [句意:这允许人们不时有一两天时间可以出去,以品味闲暇和海边。allow sb to do sth允许某人做某事。]